News from Bioethics.com

Her Own Birth Was ‘Fertility Fraud’ And Now She Needs Fertility Treatment

9 hours 33 min

(NPR) – In the 1970s and 80s, Cline deceived dozens of patients and used his own sperm to impregnate them. He has more than 60 biological children — and counting. For Woock, as the story of her parentage sunk in, it was distressing for another reason: She wanted to start her own family and was having trouble conceiving. And now she needed to turn to the fertility industry that had so badly betrayed her mom.

WHO Raises Possibility of ‘Sustained’ Human-to-Human Transmission of New Virus in China

9 hours 44 min

(STAT News) – The World Health Organization on Tuesday raised the possibility that the new virus spreading in parts of China may be transmitting in an ongoing, sustained manner between people — which, if confirmed, would make it significantly more difficult to stop. The agency’s Western Pacific Regional office, which covers China and neighboring countries, said on Twitter that new information “suggests there may now be sustained human-to-human transmission.”

Health Officials Confirm First U.S. Case of China Coronavirus, Expand Screening

10 hours 3 min

(Reuters) – A U.S. resident who recently traveled to China has been diagnosed with the newly identified coronavirus that has sickened more than 300 people and killed at least six in China, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) said on Tuesday. The U.S. patient is responding well to treatment and was not severely ill, CDC and Washington State health officials said. 

Hospitals Give Tech Giants Access to Detailed Medical Records

10 hours 10 min

(The Wall Street Journal) – Hospitals have granted Microsoft Corp., MSFT -0.36% International Business Machines IBM 0.62% Corp. and Amazon[dot]com Inc. AMZN 1.46% the ability to access identifiable patient information under deals to crunch millions of health records, the latest examples of hospitals’ growing influence in the data economy. The breadth of access wasn’t always spelled out by hospitals and tech giants when the deals were struck.

Benzodiazepines Might Be a ‘Hidden Element’ of the US’ Overdose Epidemic–And Doctor Visits for Prescriptions Are Increasing

1 day 11 hours

(CNN) – Doctors have been increasingly prescribing benzodiazepines, also known as “benzos,” in recent years. Looking at data from 2014 to 2016, new research found this class of central nervous system depressants was prescribed at about 65.9 million office-based doctor visits. That’s a rate of 27 annual visits per 100 adults. The research, which analyzed data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, was published on Friday by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Deadly Mystery Virus Reported in 2 New Chinese Cities and South Korea

1 day 11 hours

(The New York Times) – The authorities in China reported a third death from a mysterious virus and more than 130 new cases over the weekend, including ones found in Beijing and southern China for the first time. One new case was also reported in South Korea on Monday. The jump in cases raised questions about how the virus is being transmitted and added to concerns about the spread of the illness ahead of China’s busiest travel season.

Research on Embryo-Like Structures Struggles to Win US Government Funding

1 day 11 hours

(Nature) – Scientists can now create clumps of cells that resemble human embryos, raising hopes that they could study the elusive first stages of human development while avoiding the ethical concerns that make it difficult to study actual human embryos. But as these embryo models — in which human stem cells are transformed into embryo-like structures whose growth mirrors more advanced stages of embryo development — grow in popularity, US researchers say they are finding it increasingly difficult to obtain federal funding for such work.

Nations Dawdle on Agreeing Rules to Control ‘Killer Robots’ in Future Wars

1 day 12 hours

(Reuters) – Countries are rapidly developing “killer robots” – machines with artificial intelligence (AI) that independently kill – but are moving at a snail’s pace on agreeing global rules over their use in future wars, warn technology and human rights experts. From drones and missiles to tanks and submarines, semi-autonomous weapons systems have been used for decades to eliminate targets in modern day warfare – but they all have human supervision.

Benzodiazepine Prescriptions Reach ‘Disturbing’ Levels in the US

4 days 13 hours

(New Scientist) – Benzodiazepine drugs are prescribed at about 66 million doctor appointments a year in the US, according to a report by the US National Center for Health Statistics. This means that for every 100 adults that visit an office-based doctor over the course of a year, 27 visits will result in a prescription for a benzodiazepine. The figures, based on surveys conducted between 2014 and 2016, are “discouraging and disappointing”, says Lois Platt at Rush University in Chicago. “The statistics we have are disturbing, and everyone should be concerned about bringing them down,” she says.

Fake Drugs: How Bad Is Africa’s Counterfeit Medicine Problem?

4 days 13 hours

(BBC) – The proliferation of fake medicines in Africa is a public health crisis that can no longer be ignored, according to a UK charity. There’s a meeting of seven African countries, in Togo, this week, to combat the problem. Congo, Niger, Senegal, Togo, Uganda, Ghana and The Gambia will discuss measures to clamp down on trafficking in fake medicines, says the Brazzaville Foundation. But how big a problem is counterfeit medicine in Africa, and what impact does it have?

‘Donation after Cardiac Death’: New Heart Transplant Method Being Tested for the First Time in the U.S.

4 days 14 hours

(STAT News) – As part of the new procedure, known as “donation after cardiac death,” or DCD, transplants, organs are retrieved from those who have died because their heart stopped — either naturally or because physicians discontinued life support. That work is made possible by a machine that allows the heart to not only be perfused with warm blood after it has been removed from the donor, keeping the heart functional and “alive” enough to be transported and transplanted several hours after retrieval, but also allows surgeons to assess the heart’s functionality in a way that wasn’t previously possible.

Stealth Disease Likely to Blame for 20% of Worldwide Deaths

5 days 9 hours

(NPR) – A medical condition that often escapes public notice may be involved in 20% of deaths worldwide, according to a new study. The disease is sepsis — sometimes called blood poisoning. It arises when the body overreacts to an infection. Blood vessels throughout the body become leaky, triggering multiple-organ failure. It is surprisingly common in the United States: One prominent study estimates 1.7 million cases a year and 270,000 deaths. 

Transparency on Trial

5 days 10 hours

(Science) – For 20 years, the U.S. government has urged companies, universities, and other institutions that conduct clinical trials to record their results in a federal database, so doctors and patients can see whether new treatments are safe and effective. Few trial sponsors have consistently done so, even after a 2007 law made posting mandatory for many trials registered in the database. In 2017, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tried again, enacting a long-awaited “final rule” to clarify the law’s expectations and penalties for failing to disclose trial results. The rule took full effect 2 years ago, on 18 January 2018, giving trial sponsors ample time to comply. But a Science investigation shows that many still ignore the requirement, while federal officials do little or nothing to enforce the law.

Embryo Research to Reduce Need for In Vitro Fertilization Raises Ethical Concerns

6 days 9 hours

(NPR) – Researchers have conducted a controversial study that involved paying dozens of young women at a hospital near Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, to get artificially inseminated so their embryos could be flushed out of their bodies and analyzed for research purposes. The study showed that embryos created that way appear to be as healthy genetically as embryos created through standard in vitro fertilization. Physically, the embryos appear to, possibly, even be healthier, the study found.

More Than 100 Billion Pain Pills Saturated the Nation Over Nine Years

6 days 9 hours

(The Washington Post) – Newly disclosed federal drug data shows that more than 100 billion doses of oxycodone and hydrocodone were shipped nationwide from 2006 through 2014 — 24 billion more doses of the highly addictive pain pills than previously known to the public. The data, which traces the path of every pain pill shipped in the United States, shows the extent to which opioids flooded the country as deaths from the epidemic continued to climb over nine years. The Washington Post and the company that owns the Charleston Gazette-Mail in West Virginia first obtained the data, collected by the Drug Enforcement Administration, from 2006 through 2012 after waging a year-long legal fight.

Chinese Health Officials Can’t Rule Out Person-to-Person Spread of New Virus

6 days 9 hours

(STAT News) – The possibility that a new virus in central China could spread between humans cannot be ruled out, though the risk of transmission at the moment appears to be low, Chinese officials said Wednesday. Forty-one people in the city of Wuhan have received a preliminary diagnosis of a novel coronavirus, a family of viruses that can cause both the common cold and more serious diseases. A 61-year-old man with severe underlying conditions died from the coronavirus on Saturday.

3D Printing and the Murky Ethics of Replicating Human Bones

1 week 11 hours

(TIME) – But the proliferation of faux bones also poses an ethical dilemma — and one that, prior to the advent of accessible 3D printing, was mostly limited to museum collections containing skeletons of dubious provenance. Laws governing how real human remains of any kind may be obtained and used for research, after all — as well as whether individuals can buy and sell such remains — are already uneven worldwide. Add to that the new ability to traffic in digital data representing these remains, and the ethical minefield becomes infinitely more fraught.

Dying in the Neurosurgical I.C.U.

1 week 11 hours

(The New York Times) – Trickier and much more common is the middle ground of a neurologically devastating injury without brain death. Here, decisions can be more difficult, and electing to continue or to withdraw treatment much more problematic. Inconsistent communication and support between medical staff members and families plays a role. A new field, neuropalliative care, seeks to focus “on outcomes important to patients and families” and “to guide and support patients and families through complex choices involving immense uncertainty and intensely important outcomes of mind and body.”

Belgian Doctors Face Trial in Country’s First Euthanasia Case

1 week 11 hours

(The New York Times) – Three Belgian doctors go on trial for murder on Tuesday for helping a woman end her life, in the country’s first criminal case concerning euthanasia. The doctors, whose names have not been made public, are accused of unlawfully poisoning 38-year-old Tine Nys on April 27, 2010. Prosecutors say Nys did not fulfill the conditions under Belgian law to be euthanised. They are the first doctors to go on trial for euthanasia in Belgium since the country legalized the practice in 2002.

Families Sending Relatives with Dementia to Thailand for Care

1 week 11 hours

(The Guardian) – British families are sending elderly relatives with dementia overseas to Thailand in a small but growing trend. Researchers visiting private care homes in Chiang Mai have found eight homes where guests from the UK are living thousands of miles away from their families, because suitable care in their home country was impossible to find or afford.

23andMe Sold the Rights to a Drug It Developed from Its Genetic Database

1 week 1 day

(The Verge) – The genetics testing company 23andMe licensed the rights to a drug it developed in-house to a Spanish pharmaceutical company, Bloomberg reported. This is the first time that the company has directly sold a product it created using the genetic information collected from users. 23andMe has already shared genetic data with pharmaceutical companies. GlaxoSmithKline has the exclusive rights to use its data for drug development, and purchased a $300 million stake in the company in 2018. But those drug companies use the company’s data to create their own drugs. In this case, 23andMe identified a drug candidate and conducted animal studies on that drug internally before selling it. The Spanish company, Almirall, will take the product through human trials.

Medically Assisted Deaths Prove a Growing Boon to Organ Donation in Ontario

1 week 1 day

(Ottawa Citizen) – Ontarians who opt for medically assisted deaths (MAiD) are increasingly saving or improving other people’s lives by also including organ and tissue donation as part of their final wishes. In the first 11 months of 2019, MAiD patients in the province accounted for 18 organ and 95 tissue donors, a 14 per cent increase over 2018 and a 109 per cent increase over 2017. (Figures for December 2019 are not yet available.) According to Trillium Gift of Life Network, which oversees organ and tissue donation in Ontario, the 113 MAiD-related donations in 2019 accounted for five per cent of overall donations in Ontario, a share that has also been increasing.

Artificial Intelligence Makes Bad Medicine Even Worse

1 week 1 day

(Wired) – In other words, AI systems like the one from Google promise to combine humans and machines in order to facilitate cancer diagnosis, but they also have the potential to worsen pre-existing problems such as overtesting, overdiagnosis, and overtreatment. It’s not even clear whether the improvements in false-positive and false-negative rates reported this month would apply in real-world settings. The Google study found that AI performed better than radiologists who were not specifically trained in examining mammograms. Would it come out on top against a team of more specialized experts?

Nearly 2 Million Adults Are Estimated to Have Shown Symptoms of PTSD During Hong Kong Protests, Study Finds

1 week 4 days

(CNN) – Almost 2 million people in Hong Kong — about a third its adult population — are estimated to have experienced symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during months of social unrest in the city, according to research published Friday in The Lancet medical journal. Researchers from the University of Hong Kong surveyed 18,000 people between 2009 and 2019 in what they said was the world’s largest and longest study of the population-wide impact of social unrest on mental health.

Hungary to Provide Free Fertility Treatment to Boost Population

1 week 4 days

(BBC) – Hungary will provide free in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment to couples at state-run clinics, Prime Minister Viktor Orban has announced. He said fertility was of “strategic importance”. Last month his government took over Hungary’s fertility clinics. Mr Orban, a right-wing nationalist, has long advocated a “procreation over immigration” approach to deal with demographic decline. The country’s population has been falling steadily for four decades.

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